The aim of nuclear safety is to protect an individual, society and the environment by defining and sustaining effective radiation protection in Nuclear power plant (NPP).Fulfilment of this objective means that a risk resulting from NPP operation will be lower than a risk resulting from other energy generation methods.
Development of the nuclear industry requires maintaining strict safety rules as well as technical and environmental standards and standards for health of the population.
Thus, the power plant safety is inspected at the highest possible level in all phases (design, approval, construction, operation and final dismantling) aligned with procedures prepared exclusively according to needs of this specific industry.
Moreover, construction of a nuclear power plant is subject to an especially complicated approval process consisting of two different components: approval from the nuclear safety viewpoint, managed under the rule of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, and the environmental impact assessment (EIA), managed under the rule of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic.
Safety systems have been designed and managed to secure safety of power plants, these systems have three basic functions:
- continuous control of reactor power,
- ensuring of fuel cooling also after the termination of the fission reaction by redundant systems (3 x 100%),
- prevention of release of radioactive material outside the reactor to keep it retained under a series of safety barriers.
Technical development leads to continuous upgrade of safety systems at which human intervention is limited to minimum and safety is ensured automatically also on the basis of basic laws of physics – gravitation, coolant thermodynamics etc.